It is usually better in eastern regions, and in big cities in the north, such as Berlin[30] or Hamburg,[31] and poorest in parts of Southern Germany.[32]. "A study of longitudal effects of all-day kindergarten attendance on achievement." Additionally, every January 1, everyone's age increases by one year regardless of when their birthday is. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. There are no fixed rules for when a child needs to go to a kindergarten, but the majority will when the child turns 5 years old. In Nepal, kindergartens are run as private institutions, with their lessons conducted in English. Μετάβαση στην πλοήγηση Πήδηση στην αναζήτηση. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 4(2), 167–186. The details vary between England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Privatkindergarten Zürich Die Kita Käferberg Tarife Kosten Kindergarten Lake Zurich Community Unit School District 95 Registration Wolfgang Rossbauer Susanne Triller Kindergarten Zurich Zurich Altstetten Daycare Childcare Little Green House Rossbauer Triller Hort Ilgen Kindergarten Zurich 11 Team4 Architekten Kindergarten Regensdorf What Makes The Inter Community Schools Zurich Ics Pre Schoo Some families choose to send their children to primary school at the age of 6. Wiki-Kindergarten Mühldorf Mühldorf 106 c Wiki-Kinderbetreuung Tel. Most Bulgarian kindergartens are public. Towers, J. M. (1991). Typically, children spend 3 to 4 years of their time in pre-primary school after which they are eligible to attend 1st Standard in Primary School which falls under HRD ministry norms. Valokuvaaja palveluksessasi. On-page Analysis, Page Structure, Backlinks, Competitors and Similar Websites. The background idea can be, for example, Montessori or Waldorf education. Die 2016 eröffnete WiKi Kinderkrippe, bestehend aus einer offen geführten Gruppe mit maximal 14 Kindern, liegt direkt gegenüber dem 3-gruppigen Kindergarten Attendorf. 26. In 2006 wurde die Kinder-Arche eröffnet, die Kinderkrippe der Fraport AG und drei weiterer Firmen, die für Kinder im Alter von acht Wochen bis drei Jahren montags bis freitags zwischen 7 und 18 Uhr geöffnet hat. : 03113/51594-15 oder 0664/2342671 Email: 1. Some nurseries are attached to state infant or primary schools, but many are provided by the private sector. As of September 2013, there are approximately 152 kindergartens registered in the country. Kinderkrippe translation in German - English Reverso dictionary, see also 'Kinderkriegen',Kinderreim',Kinderkram',kinderlieb', examples, definition, conjugation Kindergarten: Die Elternbeiträge werden nach dem Familien-Netto-Einkommen sozial gestaffelt (maximal 142,29 Euro). The curriculum aims to develop: In the United States, kindergarten is usually part of the K-12 educational system. ED 436 756. Since 2012, two years of pre-school education are compulsory. Some members of Taiwanese society have raised concerns as to whether local children should be placed in English immersion environments at such a young age, and have raised fears that the students abilities in their mother language may suffer as a result. Im Miteinander der Gruppe sammeln die Kinder die ersten The kindergarten is a form of preschool and may be referred to interchangeably as preschool. Mit viel Nestwärme und einer engen Bindung unterstützen wir With the onset of civil war after the Soviet withdrawal, the number of kindergartens dropped rapidly. Wir freuen uns, Ihr Kind in unserer Kinderkrippe betreuen zu dürfen. The child will usually attend kindergarten for two years, before proceeding to primary school at age 7.[35]. Anglický • Francouzský • Italský • Německý • Ruský • Španělský • Slovenský. The ages are divided into grande section (GS: 5-year-olds), moyenne section (MS: 4-year-olds), petite section (PS: 3-year-olds) and toute petite section (TPS: 2-year-olds). "An assessment of the all-day kindergarten movement." Two-thirds of established day-care institutions in Denmark are municipal day-care centres while the other third are privately owned and are run by associations of parents or businesses in agreement with local authorities. Such institutions were originally made in the late 18th century in Bavaria and Alsace to serve children whose parents both worked outside home. Until 1985, it used to be a separate non-compulsory form of education (for children aged 4–6 years), after which children (aged 6–12 years) attended the primary school (lagere school). Separate from the National Education System, kindergarten is contributing greatly toward achieving the Millennium Development Goal of universal primary education in Bangladesh. designated survivor: 60 days wiki. (2006). In New Zealand, kindergarten can refer to education in the 2 years preceding primary school, from age 3 to 4. The grades generally start from Nursery (sometimes "Play Group"), "KG" afterwards, and ends with the 5th grade. Browse our 100’s of destinations you can jet off to with easyJet. The names of the levels are nursery, shishu (children), etc. Weitere Ideen zu bienen, imkerei, bienenhaltung. Kosten für Tätigkeiten in einer Behindertenwerkstätte im nachgewiesenen Ausmaß steuerlich geltend gemacht werden. Kosten Kinderkrippe In der Kinderkrippe Übelbach werden Kinder zwischen 0 und 3 Jahren aufgenommen. In Mongolia, kindergarten is known as "цэцэрлэг" or tsetserleg. Wir freuen uns, Ihr Kind in unserer Kinderkrippe betreuen zu dürfen. By the end of the decade, they were common in large Canadian towns and cities. However, the word "kindergarten" is used for more specialist organisations such as forest kindergartens and is sometimes used in the naming of private nurseries that provide full-day child care for working parents. EJ 441 182. [28] Within the federal system, Kindergärten fall under the responsibility of the states,[29] which usually delegate a large share of the responsibility to the municipalities. Truly a masterpiece! Zusätzlich bieten wir interessante Lösungen für Kommunen und Gemeinden (z.B. [52] Students develop skills such as numeracy, literacy and a greater awareness of the world around them geographically, scientifically, socially and culturally.[53]. Tagesordnung wie der Morgenkreis und die Freispielzeit. Alongside nurseries, there are day-care nurses (Tagesmütter or Tagespflegepersonen) working independently of any pre-school institution in individual homes and looking after only three to five children, typically up to the age of three. sozialen Erfahrungen mit Gleichaltrigen. Kinderkrippe - Traduction Allemand-Français : Retrouvez la traduction de Kinderkrippe, mais également des exemples avec le mot Kinderkrippe... - Dictionnaire, définitions, … Gedurende die afgelope dekade is die belangrikheid van die fundamentele regte van kinders toenemend erken, soos vervat in die Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika, die Kinderwet en internasionale instrumente soos die Verenigde Nasies se Konvensie oor die Regte van die Kind en die Afrika-handves oor die Regte en Welsyn van die Kind. : 03152/39210 E-Mail: Leiterin: Andrea Rathkolb. Samuel Wilderspin opened his first infant school in London in 1819,[9] and went on to establish hundreds more. In Sweden, kindergarten activities were established in the 19th century, and have been widely expanded since the 1970s. In Malaysia, kindergarten is known as tadika. Pre-schools are usually known as creche, nursery schools or playgroups, while the first year of schooling is known as Reception in England and Wales and Primary One in Scotland and Northern Ireland (though different terms may be used in the small minority of UK schools which teach primarily through the medium of a language other than English). For children up to the age of three (or four), there are pre-school playgroups. Kindergarten is optional. kinetický kinetisch. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Traductions en contexte de "Kinderkrippe" en allemand-français avec Reverso Context : Amanda Keogh „entdeckte neue Arbeitsweisen in einer Kinderkrippe". first grade. Nr. The first barnehager were founded in Norway in the late 19th century. Newark, NJ: Newark Board of Education. kinin das Kinin. Kiejtés, fonetikus leírás és példamondatok egy helyen. [17][18] in 1882, The country's first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario (modern Kitchener) at the Central School. The kindergarten system in Mexico was developed by professor Rosaura Zapata, who received the country's highest honor for her contribution. Hier It goes before the other three years and is not obligatory. © 2012 - CNRTL 44, avenue de la Libération BP 30687 54063 Nancy Cedex - France Tél. In Chile, the term equivalent to Kindergarten is "Educación parvularia", sometimes also called "Educación Preescolar". Elizabeth Harrison wrote extensively on the theory of early childhood education and worked to enhance educational standards for kindergarten teachers by establishing what became the National College of Education in 1886. In Spain, kindergarten is called Infantil or Educación Infantil and covers ages 3 to 6, the three courses being called, respectively, P-3, P-4 and P-5. The children are divided in three groups: "little group" (grupa mică, age 3–4), "medium group" (grupa mijlocie, age 4–5) and "big group" (grupa mare, age 5–6). [4], In 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first British and probably globally the first infants school in New Lanark, Scotland. Her studies and concern for children led her to spread through conferences and numerous documents, the importance of protecting children early and to respond to the formation of a personality based on justice and understanding, as well as the use of methods Fröbel and from Montessori and participation of parents in this educational task. kinofilm der Film. Due to the subsidiarity principle stipulated by §4 SGB VIII, there are a multitude of operators, from municipalities, churches and welfare societies to parents' initiatives and profit-based corporations. As a provision in this law, children under five years old are required to enroll in a kindergarten in any public elementary school in the country. Upper Kindergarten (大班/dà bān): 5- to 6-year-old children. 03865 / 4303 kinetika die Kinetik. The year preceding the first year of primary school education in Western Australia, South Australia or the Northern Territory is referred to respectively as pre-primary, reception or transition. In der Gruppe werden maximal 14 Kinder von einer Kindergartenpädagogin und zwei Kinderbetreuerinnen betreut. Puleo, V. T.(1988). [2] At about the same time, in 1780, similar infant establishments were created in Bavaria. Even in smaller townships, there are often both Roman Catholic and Lutheran kindergartens available. Interne Jever, 8. Together, these two kinds of institutions enroll 86% at age 3 and 99% at age 5 prior to their entrance into the formal system at first grade. Before that, less structured childcare is available privately. Today, the term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions and learning spaces for children ranging from 2 to 6 or 7 years of age, based on a variety of teaching methods. In 2002, the Congress of the Union approved the Law of Obligatory Pre-schooling, which made pre-school education for three to six-year-olds obligatory, and placed it under the auspices of the federal and state ministries of education.[36][37]. Directives state that children who are three years old on 31 September in the given academic year are eligible to attend Nursery and Kindergarten classes. Korean kindergartners learn to read, write (often in English as well as Korean) and do simple arithmetic. Pre-primary Services in Hong Kong refers to provision of education and care to young children by kindergartens and child care centres. BEITRÄGE UND ABBUCHUNGEN Genaue Informationen zu den Kosten in der Kinderkrippe finden Sie auf dem beiliegenden Informationsblatt, das als Teil der Betreuungsvereinbarung gilt. Children younger than three are often kept separate from the older children, since the youngest are only expected to play, rest and eat. Grundlage dafür ist eine gute Zusammenarbeit unter allen pädagogischen Fachkräften, den Eltern und vor allem mit dem Träger. In most schools, children begin kindergarten at age five for one year. Die hellen, liebevoll gestalteten Räumlichkeiten bieten vielfältige Spielmöglichkeiten für Kinder im Alter von 0-3 Jahren. : 03152/67761 In the Philippines, education officially starts at the Elementary level and placing children into early childhood education through kindergarten is optional to parents. Die Kinderkrippe ist für die meisten Kinder der erste Ort Book online today! The debate continues, but at the present time, the market for English Immersion Preschools continues to grow. Please enable it to continue. These nurses are supported and supervised by local authorities. Karweit, N. (1992). Der Beitrag für die Unterbringung der Kinderkrippe wird 11 Mal eingehoben. Kindergartens, registered with the Education Bureau, provide services for children from three to six years old. English-German online dictionary developed to help you share your knowledge with others. Kinderkrippe Stallhofen Öffnungszeiten und Kosten: Halbtags von 07:00 bis 13:00 Uhr Kosten € 218,90 monatlich 70 Euro monatlich mehr für Kinder aus anderen Gemeinden Gesunde Jause und Materialgeld: € 15,- monatlich Unser Mittagessen beziehen wir von der Seniorenresidenz Stallhofen und kostet pro Portion € 3,-. Als Teil einer Gruppe lernen sie sich This goes with the implementation of the K-12 system in the Basic Education Curriculum. Parents are strongly committed to early education and frequently enroll their children in preschools. Gerade für die Kleinsten ist ein geregelter Tagesablauf mit fi x integrierten Ritualen wichtig - gleichbleibende [citation needed]. In Victoria, kindergarten is a form of preschool and may be referred to interchangeably as preschool or kindergarten. Kindergarten classes (grade 0) was made mandatory in 2009 and are offered by primary schools before a child enters 1st grade. Eine qualitätsvolle Beziehungsarbeit ist in der Krippe Gruppe: 8.00 14.00 Uhr; Ganzjährige Betreuung, nur im Sommer 3 Wochen geschlossen 0600 900 500. Volkshilfe Steiermark/Kinderhafen Kirchplatz 1, 8650 Kindberg Tel. The aim of pre-primary education in Hong Kong is to provide children with a relaxing and pleasurable learning environment to promote a balanced development of different aspects necessary to a child's development such as the physical, intellectual, language, social, emotional and aesthetic aspects. Early childhood education in the Philippines is classified into: Early childhood education was strengthened through the creation of the Early Childhood Care and Development Act of 2000 (Republic Act No. In Norway, barnehage (children's garden) is the term equivalent to kindergarten, used for children in the ages between 10 months and 6 years. Whereas kindergartens follow educational aims, nursery schools are predominantly concerned with providing care for infants and toddlers. Kindergarten (/ ˈ k ɪ n d ər ˌ ɡ ɑːr t ən /, US: /-d ən / (); from German [ˈkɪndɐˌɡaːɐ̯tn̩] ()) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. In return for annual fees, the chain enterprises may supply advertising, curriculum, books, materials, training, and even staff for each individual school. Zusätzlich werden 5 Euro monatlich Bastelbeitrag eingehoben. Canada's first private kindergarten was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in 1870. There has been a huge growth in the number of privately owned and operated English immersion preschools in Taiwan since 1999. [19] In 1885, the Toronto Normal School (teacher training) opened a department for kindergarten teaching.[19]. Sept. 11, 2020. These can be two separate institutions, or a single combined one in different areas. His system was successful in producing obedient children with basic literacy and numeracy.[8]. Translation for 'Kinderkrippen' in the free German-English dictionary and many other English translations. Kosten Kinderkrippe: 215,60 Euro/monatlich Der Einzug des Beitrages erfolgt 10-mal im Betreuungsjahr (September-Juni). Children Today, 20(1), 25–28. Daher ist es besonders wichtig, dass [34] The Ministry of Education's 1990 Course of Study for Preschools, which applies to both kinds of institutions, covers such areas as human relationships, health, environment, language, and expression. The term Vorschule ("pre-school") is used both for educational efforts in Kindergärten and for a mandatory class that is usually connected to a primary school. Translation for 'Kinderkrippe' in the free German-English dictionary and many other English translations. i want a Kinderkrippe anywhere between Horgen and Altendorf, ideally one that costs less than or around 100 CHF a day, and one that has places available starting next mid-July. Blog. [40] The kindergartens are run by the private sector, including community foundations, religious bodies, and civic or business groups. In 1902 the teacher Elvira Garcia and Garcia co-founder of the Society cited above, organized the first kindergarten for children 2 to 8 years old, Fanning annex to the Lyceum for ladies. They were originally established to allow mothers a chance to work out of their homes, and were therefore seen as a social service. Working parents can also receive from their employers childcare worth £55 per week free of income tax,[47] which is typically enough to pay for one or two days per week. The Learning Journey. The Scottish Government defines its requirements for nursery schools in the Early Years Framework[48] and the Curriculum for Excellence. außerhalb des gewohnten Familienverbands. It is regulated by the Ministry of National Education. Weiterbildungen | Impressum | Datenschutz | Anfahrt, Sitemap | © 2020 - WIKI Kinderbetreuungs dem Krippenteam ist dabei sehr wichtig. 8980). Master’s thesis, University of Alberta. GmbH. 12.11.2020 - Erkunde Monika Bergers Pinnwand „Bienen“ auf Pinterest. New York: Scholastic. 3 interactive class activities to energize your online classroom Previous nursery is optional and may be offered in either private schools or public schools. [10][11] In 1836 she established an institute for the foundation of preschool centers. 03865 / 20727 E-Mail: Diese E-Mail-Adresse ist vor Spambots geschützt! Nr. The education system before kindergarten in Mongolia is called "ясль", which accepts children between 0 and 2 years of age. Oktober 2020 0 Von. Korean parents often send their children to English kindergartens to give them a head start in English. Denmark is credited with pioneering (although not inventing) forest kindergartens, in which children spend most of every day outside in a natural environment. For early years education, see, Preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing. De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "Kinderkrippe" – Dictionnaire français-allemand et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. Kinder bei ihrer Entwicklung. 130/1967 idF LGBl. Children attend kindergarten between ages 3–6/7 (they go to school in the year in which they have their 7th birthday). Find more data about kinderkrippen. After 1985, both forms were integrated into one, called basisonderwijs (Dutch for primary education). kinestezie die Kinästhesie. Die bedürfnisorientierte und individuelle Bildungsbegleitung gelingt mit viel Wertschätzung und einem respektvollen Umgang. State-run, free maternelle schools are available throughout the kingdom, welcoming children aged from 2 to 5 (although in many places, children under 3 may not be granted a place). : +33 3 83 96 21 76 - Fax : +33 3 83 97 24 56 The idea became popular among the nobility and the middle class and was copied throughout the Kingdom of Hungary. Kinderkrippe Flohhupferl Schillerstraße 25 b Tel. State (public) kindergartens only accept children older than 3 years, while private ones do not have such limitations. The vast majority of Afghan families were never exposed to this system, and many of these families were in opposition to these programs due to the belief that it diminishes the central role of the family and inculcates children with Soviet values. SEO rating for Housden, T., & Kam, R. (1992). The more general term would be Kindergarten or Kindertagesstätte. The fourth one is called maternal. Nechtěli jste hledat: kimonov ý Kimono-kinematografický kinematographisch. As with Victoria and Tasmania, the first year of primary school is also called Prep, which is then followed by Year 1. finden Sie alle Kinderkrippen in der Steiermark, Ich bin mit der Erhebung/Speicherung meiner eingegebenen Daten und IP zum Zwecke der Bearbeitung der Anfrage sowie für mögliche Anschlussfragen einverstanden. Usually the children attend the "detska gradina" from the morning until late afternoon when their parents return from work. It consists of three years of pre-school education, which are mandatory before elementary school. The term kindergarten is rarely used in the UK to describe modern pre-school education or the first years of compulsory primary school education. By 1995, only 88 functioning facilities serving 2,110 children survived, and the Taliban restrictions on female employment eliminated all of the remaining centers in areas under their control. For children under 4, the country offers private, subsidized daycares (kinderdagverblijf), which are noncompulsory but nevertheless very popular. English Translation of “Kinderkrippe” | The official Collins German-English Dictionary online. Even before the 2018 law, almost all children aged 3 to 5 attended école maternelle. The proper kindergarten age spans from 3–6 years. Kindergarten (/ˈkɪndərˌɡɑːrtən/, US: /-dən/ (listen); from German [ˈkɪndɐˌɡaːɐ̯tn̩] (listen)[1]) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Kinderkrippe in the original sense means a daycare place that takes in kids below 12 months. Today, they mostly serve the purpose of general education and social interaction. Dazu kommen die Kosten für einen (bisweilen geförderten) Sprachkurs, die zur Hälfte die Gastfamilie übernimmt. By contrast, Kinderkrippe or Krippe refers to a crèche for the care of children before they enter Kindergarten (9 weeks to about three years), Kindertagesstätte—literally "children's day site", usually shortened to Kita is an umbrella term for any day care facility for preschoolers. In Queensland, kindergarten is usually an institution for children around the age of 4 and thus it is the precursor to preschool and primary education. Many Kindergärten follow a certain educational approach, such as Montessori, Reggio Emilia, "Berliner Bildungsprogramm" or Waldorf; forest kindergartens are well established. Carmichael, CA: San Juan Unified School District. Neben der WIKI Kinderkrippe Anton-Bruckner-Gasse führen wir seit diesem Herbst auch den zweigruppigen Kindergarten und die eingruppige Kinderkrippe in der Kulmistraße. : 03152/20684 E-Mail: Leiterin: Klara Hefler. 15.08.2020 - Erkunde Nicole Gerstners Pinnwand „Kinderkrippe“ auf Pinterest. All caretakers in Kita or Kindergarten must have a three-year qualified education, or are under special supervision during training. In the 1980s, England and Wales officially adopted the Northern Irish system whereby children start school either in the term or year in which they will become five depending on the policy of the local education authority. Elementary School Journal, 88(4), 427–439. ED 345 868. All government schools and affiliated private schools allow children who are 5 years of age to enroll in standard 1 of a primary school. Some kindergartens further divide nursery into N1 and N2. The province of Ontario and the Northwest Territories provide two years of kindergarten, usually part of an elementary school. At the end of the 1850s, Uno Cygnaeus, known as the "father of the Finnish primary school", presented the idea of bringing kindergartens to Finland after attending a kindergarten in Hamburg and a seminar training kindergarten teachers during his study trip to Central Europe. The term was coined in the metaphorical sense of "place where children can grow in a natural way", not in the literal sense of having a "garden". The number of preschools grew steadily during the 1980s, peaking in 1990 with more than 270 in Afghanistan. Kindergarten in Sudan is divided into private and public kindergarten. Apu kodin tietotekniikkapulmiin yhdellä soitolla. The majority of these schools are part of large school chains, which operate under franchise arrangements. Από Βικιλεξικό . The one to three-year program, known as nursery, kindergarten 1 (K1), and kindergarten 2 (K2), prepares children for their first year in primary school education. Kinderkrippe, Kindergarten und Vorschule, die an die Obermayr International School angegliedert sind. Common names for these three years are: In some places, children at 5–6 years may in addition or instead attend "reception" or "preparatory" classes (学前班/xué qián bān) focusing on preparing children for formal schooling. Richtlinie des Gemeinderates vom 18.03.2004 in der Fassung vom 5.6.2008 betreffend das einheitliche Tarifsystem für staatliche und private Kinderbetreuungseinrichtungen.. Auf Grund des § 45 Abs. The Scottish government provides funding[46] so that all children from the age of three until they start compulsory school can attend five sessions per week of two and a half hours each, either in state-run or private nurseries. Die Kinderkrippe ist die erste außerfamiliäre Einrichtung und daher ist es besonders wichtig, dass sich die Kinder unter drei Jahren dort wohl fühlen können. In Luxembourg, a Kindergarten is called Spillschoul (literally "Playschool", plural Spillschoulen). [24], Kindergarten activity emphases and background communities vary. Almost every rural area now has at least one Kindergarten School, with most being run in the Bengali language. Die verschiedenen Aktivitäten unterstützen die Kinder in ihrer sozialen, : (03682) 239 78-12 - Mail: kindergarten @ Google Images. Based on the Soviet model, these Early Childhood Development programs provided nursery care, preschool, and kindergarten for children from 3 months to 6 years of age under the direction of the Department of Labor and Social Welfare. Early childhood education begins at home, and there are numerous books and television shows aimed at helping mothers and fathers of preschool children to educate their children and to parent more effectively. EJ 367 934. In Romania, grădiniţă, which means "little garden", is the favored form of education for preschool children usually aged 3–6. In Kuwait, Kuwaiti children may go to free government kindergartens for two years (KG1 and KG2) between the ages of four and six. Children are pushed to read and write at a very young age. At this peak, there were 2,300 teachers caring for more than 21,000 children in the country. West, J., Denton, K., & Germino-Hausken, E.(2000). Ark. Because the education system in Korea is very competitive, kindergartens are becoming more intensely academic. Oma tyylikäs studio Kauniaisissa. traduction Kinderkrippe dans le dictionnaire Allemand - Francais de Reverso, voir aussi 'Kinderkrippe',Kinderreim',kinderlieb',Kinderlied', conjugaison, expressions idiomatiques Generally, schools imparting this level, the JUNJI (National Council of Kindergarten Schools) and other private institutions have the following organization of groups or subcategories of levels: In China, pre-school education, before the child enters formal schooling at 6 years of age, is generally divided into a "nursery" or "preschool" stage and a "kindergarten" (幼儿园 (yòu'éryuán) stage.